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物理学
A 5.12-GHz LC-based phase-locked loop for silicon pixel readouts of high-energy physics
There is an urgent need for high-quality and high-frequency clock generators for high-energy physics experiments. The transmission data rate exceeds 10 Gbps for a single channel in future readout electronics of silicon pixel detectors. Others, such as time measurement detectors, require a high time resolution based on the time-todigital readout architecture. A phase-locked loop(PLL) is an essential and broadly used circuit in these applications.This study presents an application-specific integrated circuit of a low-jitter, low-power LC-tank that is PLL fabricated using 55-nm CMOS technology. It includes a 3 rd-order frequency synthesis loop with a programmable bandwidth, a divide-by-2 pre-scaler, standard low-voltage differential signaling interfaces, and a current mode logic(CML) driver for clock transmissions. All the d-fiip-fiop dividers and phase-frequency detectors are protected from single-event upsets using the triple modular redundancy technique. The proposed VCO uses low-pass filters to suppress the noise from bias circuits. The tested LC-PLL covers a frequency locking range between 4.74 GHz and 5.92 GHz with two sub-bands. The jitter measurements of the frequency-halved clock(2.56 GHz) are less than 460 fs and 0.8 ps for the random and deterministic jitters,respectively, and a total of 7.5 ps peak-to-peak with a bit error rate of 10~(–12). The random and total jitter values for frequencies of 426 MHz and 20 MHz are less than 1.8 ps and 65 ps, respectively. The LC-PLL consumed 27 m W for the core and 73.8 m W in total. The measured results nearly coincided with the simulations and validated the analyses and tests.
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Nuclear Science and Techniques
2022年07期
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