Phosphogypsum(PG) is a typical by-product of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers during acid digestion. The application of cemented paste backfill(CPB) has been feasibly investigated for the remediation of PG. The present study evaluated fluorine immobilization mechanisms and attempted to construct a related thermodynamic and geochemical modeling to describe the related stabilization performance.Physico-chemical and mineralogical analyses were performed on PG and hardened PG-based CPB(PCPB). The correlated macro-and microstructural properties were obtained from the analysis of the combination of unconfined compressive strength and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy imaging. Acid/base-dependent leaching tests were performed to ascertain fluoride leachability. In addition, Gibbs Energy Minimization Software and PHREEQC were applied as tools to characterize the PCPB hydration and deduce its geochemical characteristics. The results proved that multiple factors are involved in fluorine stabilization, among which the calcium silicate hydrate gel was found to be associated with retention. Although the quantitative comparison with the experimental data shows that further modification should be introduced into the simulation before being used as a predictive implement to determine PG management options, the importance of acid/base concentration in regulating the leaching behavior was confirmed. Moreover, the modeling enabled the identification of the impurity phases controlling the stability and leachability.