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生物学
The foraging behavior of Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata in a forested enclosure: Effects of nutrient composition,energy and its seasonal variation on the consumption of natural plant foods
<正> In the wild, primate foraging behaviors are related to the diversity and nutritional properties of food, which are affectedby seasonal variation. The goal of environmental enrichment is to stimulate captive animals to exhibit similar foraging behaviorof their wild counterparts, e.g. to extend foraging time. We conducted a 12-month study on the foraging behavior of Japanesemacaques in a semi-naturally forested enclosure to understand how they use both provisioned foods and naturally availableplant foods and what are the nutritional criteria of their consumption of natural plants. We recorded time spent feeding on provisionedand natural plant foods and collected the plant parts ingested of their major plant food species monthly, when available.We conducted nutritional analysis (crude protein, crude lipid, neutral detergent fiber-'NDF', ash) and calculated totalnon-structural carbohydrate - 'TNC' and total energy of those food items. Monkeys spent 47% of their feeding time foraging onnatural plant species. The consumption of plant parts varied significantly across seasons. We found that leaf items were consumedin months when crude protein, crude protein-to-NDF ratio, TNC and total energy were significantly higher and NDF was significantlylower, fruit/nut items in months when crude protein and TNC were significantly higher and crude lipid content was significantlylower, and bark items in months when TNC and total energy were higher and crude lipid content was lower. This preliminaryinvestigation showed that the forested enclosure allowed troop members to more fully express their species typical flexiblebehavior by challenging them to adjust their foraging behavior to seasonal changes of plant item diversity and nutritional content,also providing the possibility for individuals to nutritionally enhance their diet
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Current Zoology
2010年02期

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