Global Antimony Supply Risk Assessment Through the Industrial Chain
Antimony is a kind of critical metal for the energy transition.The antimony industrial chain is distributed in major developed and developing countries around the world.The source of antimony supply risk also exists in all aspects of the industrial chain.In this paper,we propose an ensemble index for supply antimony risk assessment that includes the Herfindahl Hirschman index,global governance index,human development index,global innovation index,and betweenness centrality in complex networks.Meanwhile,seven commodities in the antimony industrial chain are selected for empirical analysis from 2011 to 2019.The results show that:(1).Countries with high supply risks in the upstream of the industrial chain include Canada,France,Germany,India,Japan,Thailand and the United Kingdom;Countries with high supply risks in the midstream include Australia,India,Japan,Thailand and Vietnam;Countries with high downstream supply risks include Canada,India,Japan and Thailand.(2).The supply risk in the industrial chain shows that countries must strengthen industrial division and cooperation to maximize their interests.(3).Key big countries(China,the United States,Germany,etc.) play a key core role in different sectors of the industrial chain.This has caused a high supply risk of products related to the antimony industry chain.It is suggested to take country-specific measures to mitigate supply risks,including establishing national inventories of critical materials,overseas investment,strengthening the guidance of industrial policies,and accelerating infrastructure construction.