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  Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in adult serum often signals pathological conditions, particularly the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and germ cell tumors containing yolk sac cell elements. Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) as a molecular chaperone has been confirmed to overexpress in epithelial carcinoma cells. There may be a possible correlation between the expression of HSP72 and AFP during the growth and differentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The purpose of the study was to investigate the interaction between heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in human hepatocellular carcinomas. Material/Methods: The expression and localization of HSP72 and AFP in human hepatocellular carcinomas were determined by immunohistochemistry and confocal laser microscopy. The interaction between HSP72 and AFP in hepatocellular carcinoma cells was analyzed by immunoprecipitation and Western immunoblots. Results: Hepatocellular carcinoma synchronously co-expressed higher level of HSP72 and AFP than in adjacent normal liver tissues. HSP72 were stained in cell nuclei and cytoplasm respectively, while AFP stained in cell plasma. Based on Western blotting methods, AFP was detected in the immunoprecipitate of anti-HSP72 monoclonal antibody (mAb), while HSP72 existed in the immunoprecipitate of anti-AFP mAb. Conclusions: HSP72 and AFP expression are higher in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. HSP72 was associated with alpha-fetoprotein in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The interaction between HSP72 and AFP in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells can be a new route for studying the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.……